1. Lee YU, Zhao J, Mo GCH, Li S, Li G, Ma Q, Yang Q, Lal R, Zhang J, Liu Z. Metamaterial Assisted Photobleaching Microscopy with Nanometer Scale Axial Resolution.Nano Letters (Just Accepted Manuscript),DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02056
  2. Hong S, Dechaumphai E, Green CR, Lal R, Murphy AN, Matallo CM, Chen R. Sub-nanowatt microfluidic single-cell calorimetry. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):2982. Published 2020 Jun 12. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-16697-5
  3. Karkisaval AG, Rostagno A, Azimov R, Ban D, Ghiso J, Kagan BL, Lal R. Ion channel formation by N-terminally truncated Aβ (4-42): relevance for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 10]. Nanomedicine. 2020;102235. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2020.102235
  4. Ban DK, Liu Y, Wang Z, Ramachandran S, Sarkar N, Shi Z, Liu W, Karkisaval AG, Martinex-Loran E, Zhang F, Glinksy G, Bandaru PR, Fan C, Lal R. Direct DNA Methylation Profiling with an Electric Biosensor. ACS Nano. 2020;14(6):6743-6751. doi:10.1021/acsnano.9b10085
  5. Dundar M, Mechler A, Alcaraz J-P, Henehan G, Prakash S, Lal R, Martin D. Reflections on Emerging Technologies in Nanomedicine. Erciyes Medical Journal. DOI: 10.14744/etd.2020.68542


  1. Zhang, J., Yang, Y., Yang, S., Song, J., Wang, Y., Liu, X., Yang, Q., Shen, Y., Wang, S., Yang, H., Lü, J., Li, B.,Fang, H., Lal, R., Czajkowsky, D. M., Hu, J., Shi, G., Zhang, Y. Unconventional Atomic Structure of Graphene Sheets on Solid Substrates. Small 2019, 1902637.
  2. Yang, Q., M Qian, K.M. Herum, C Wang, N Patel, J Lee, s Wang, TM Yen, J Wang, H Tang, Y-H Lo, BP Head, F Azam, S Xu, G Cauwenberghs, AD McCulloch, S John, Z Liu, R Lal. Array atomic force microscopy for real-time multi-parametric analysis. PNAS, (2019)
  3. Guo J, Ramachandran S, Zhong R, Lal R, Zhang F. Construct Cyan Fluorescence by De Novo Tripeptides: An In Vitro Mutation Study on the Role of Single Amino Acid Residues and Their Sequence. ChemBioChem. 2019. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201900166
  4. Dundar M, Prakash S, Lal R, Martin D K. Future Biotechnology. The EuroBiotech Journal. 2019. DOI: 10.2478/ebtj-2019-0006
  5. Guan X, Yang B, Xie M, Ban DK, Zhao X, Lal R, Zhang F. MRI reporter gene MagA suppresses transferrin receptor and maps Fe2+ dependent lung cancer. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. 2019.


  1. Santacruz-Gomez K, Sarabia-Sainz A, Acosta-Elias M, Sarabia-Sainz M, Janetanakit W, Khosla N, Melendrez R, Montero MP, Lal R. Antioxidant activity of hydrated carboxylated nanodiamonds and its influence on water γ- radiolysis. Nanotechnology. 2018. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aaa80e
  2. Jiang X, Gao Y, Lal R, Hu J, Song B. Asymmetry induces Q-band split in the electronic excitations of magnesium porphyrin. Molecular Physics. 2018. DOI: 10.1080/00268976.2018.1444207
  3. Hwang M.T., Wang Z, Ping J, Ban D.K., Shiah Z.C., Antonschmidt L, Lee J, Liu Y, Karkisaval A.G, Johnson A.T.C., Fan C, Glinsky G, Lal R. DNA Nano-tweezers and Graphene Transistor Enable Label-free Genotyping. Advanced Materials. 2018. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201802440
  4. Hernandez A.M.*, Urbanke H.*, Gillman A.*, Lee J.*, Ryazanov S., Agbemenyah H.Y., Benito E., Jain G., Kaurani L., Grigorian G., Leonov A., Rezaei-Ghaleh N., Wilken P., Arce F.T., Wagner J., Fuhrman M., Caruana M., Camilleri A., Vassallo N., Zweckstetter M., Benz R., Giese A., Schneider A., Korte M.*, Lal R.*, Griesinger C.*, Eichele G.*, Fischer A.* The diphenylpyrazol compound anle138b blocks Abeta channels and rescues disease phenotypes in a mouse model for amyloid pathology. EMBO Molecular Medicine 2018. doi: 10.15252/emmm.201707825


  1. Lee J., Kim Y. H., Teran Arce F., Gillman A. L., Jang H., Kagan B. L., Nussinov R., Yang J., Lal R. Amyloid β Ion Channels in a Membrane Comprised of Brain Total Lipid Extracts. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2017. DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00006
  2. Huang Q.*, Lee J.*, Arce F. T.*, Yoon I., Angsantikul P., Liu J., Shi Y., Villanueva J., Thamphiwatana S., Ma X., Zhang L., Chen S.,Lal R., Sirbuly DJ. Nanofibre Optic Force Transducers with Sub-Piconewton Resolution via near-Field Plasmon–dielectric Interactions. Nature Photonics. 2017, doi:10.1038/nphoton.2017.74. (for press release click here)
  3. Liu M., Li Q., Liang L., Li J., Wang K., Li J., Lv M., Chen N., Song H., Lee J., Shi J., Wang L., Lal R., Fan C. Real-Time Visualization of Clustering and Intracellular Transport of Gold Nanoparticles by Correlative Imaging. Nature Communications. 2017, 8, 15646. doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2017.74
  4. Li N., Jang H., Yuan M., Li W., Yun X., Lee J., Du Q., Nussinov R., Hou J., Lal R., Zhang F. Graphite-Templated Amyloid Nanostructures Formed by A Potential Pentapeptide Inhibitor for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Combined Study of Real-Time Atomic Force Microscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Langmuir 2017. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b00414
  5. Janetanakit W., Wang L., Santacruz-Gomez K., Landon, P. B., Sud P. L., Patel N., Jang G., Jain M., Yepremyan A., Kazmi S., A., Ban D.K., Zhang F., and Lal R. Gold Embedded Hollow Silica Nano Golf Balls for Imaging and Photothermal Therapy. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017. doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b08398
  6. Song P., Ye D., Zuo X., Li J., Wang J., Liu H., Hwang M. T., Chao J., Su S., Wang L., Shi J., Wang L., Huang W., Lal R., Fan, C. DNA Hydrogel with Aptamer-Toehold Based Recognition, Cloaking and Decloaking of Circulating Tumor Cells for Live Cell Analysis. Nano Lett. 2017. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01006
  7. Wang L.*, Jang G.*, Ban D.*, Sant V.*, Seth J., Kazmi S., Patel N., Yang Q., Lee J., Janetanakit W., Wang S., Head B., Glinsky G, Lal R. Multifunctional Stimuli Responsive Polymer-Gated Iron and Gold-Embedded Silica Nano Golf Balls: Nanoshuttles for Targeted On-Demand Theranostics. Nature Bone Research 2017. DOI: 10.1038/boneres.2017.51
  8. Wang Z., Luo Y., Xie X., Hu X., Song H., Zhao Y., Shi J., Wang L., Glinsky G., Chen N., Lal R., Fan C. In-situ Spatial Complementation of Aptamer-mediated Recognition Enables Live-cell Imaging of Native RNA Transcripts in Real Time. Angewandte Chemie 2017 doi: 10.1002/anie.201707795
  9. Yang X., Wen Y., Wang L., Zhou C., Li Q., Xu L., Li L., Shi J.Y., Lal R., Ren S. and Li J., PCR-free colorimetric DNA hybridization detection using a 3D DNA nanostructured reporter probe. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2017 doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b11994


  1. Jang H, Arce FT, Lee J, Gillman AL, Ramachandran S, Kagan BL, Lal R, Nussinov R. Computational Methods for Structural and Functional Studies of Alzheimer’s Amyloid Ion Channels. Protein Amyloid Aggregation: Methods and Protocols. 2016:251-68. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2978-8_16
  2. Santacruz-Gomez K, Silva-Campa E, Melendrez-Amavizca R, FT Arce, Mata-Haro V, Landon PB, Zhang C, Pedroza-Montero M, Lal R, Carboxylated Nanodiamonds Inhibit γ-Irradiation Damage of Human Red Blood Cells. Nanoscale 2016, 8, 7189–7196. DOI: 10.1039/C5NR06789H
  3. Feinstein HE, Benbow SJ, LaPointe NE, Patel N, Ramachandran S, Do TD, Gaylord MR, Huskey NE, Dressler N, Korff M, Quon B. Cantrell KL, Bowers MT, Lal R, and Feinstein SC. Oligomerization of the microtubule‐associated protein tau is mediated by its N‐terminal sequences: implications for normal and pathological tau action. Journal of neurochemistry. 2016 Apr 1. DOI: 10.1111/jnc.13604
  4. Mo AH,* Zhang C,* Landon PB,* Janetanakit W, Hwang MT, Santacruz Gomez K, Colburn DA, Dossou SM, Lu T, Cao YB, Sant V. Sud P, Akkiraju S, Shubayev V, Glinsky G, and Lal R. Dual-functionalized Theranostic Nanocarriers. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2016 May 4. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b02761
  5. Mo AH,* Landon P,* Gomez KS,* Kang H, Lee J, Zhang C, Janetanakit W, Sant V, Lu T, Colburn DA, Akkiraju S. Dossou S., Cao Y., Lee K, Varghese S,Glinsky G and Lal R.Magnetically-responsive Silica-gold Nanobowls for targeted delivery and SERS-based sensing. Nanoscale. 2016. DOI: 10.1039/C6NR02445A (for press release, click here)
  6. Hwang M. T.,* Landon PB,* Lee J, Choi D, Mo AH, Glinsky G, Lal R, Highly Specific SNP Detection Using 2D Graphene Electronics and DNA Strand Displacement. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2016. Doi: 10.1073/pnas.1603753113 (for press release, click here)
  7. Gillman AL, Lee J, Ramachandran S, Capone R, Gonzalez T, Wrasidlo W, Masliah E, Lal R, Small molecule NPT-440-1 inhibits ionic flux through Aβ1–42 pores: implications for Alzheimer’s disease therapeutics, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2016.06.001
  8. Huang Q., Teran Arce F., Lee J., Yoon I., Villanueva J., Lal R., Sirbuly D. J. Gap Controlled Plasmon-Dielectric Coupling Effects Investigated with Single Nanoparticle-Terminated Atomic Force Microscope Probes. Nanoscale 2016. DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03432b


  1. Patel N, Ramachandran S, Azimov R, Kagan BL, Lal R. Ion Channel Formation by Tau Protein: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease and Taupathies. Biochemistry, 2015. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.5b00988.
  2. Hwang MT*, Landon PB*, Lee J, Mo A, Meckes B, Glinsky G, Lal R. "DNA nano-carrier for repeatable capture and release of biomolecules" Nanoscale. 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5NR05124J
  3. Landon PB*, Mo AH*, Printz AD, Emerson C, Zhang C, Janetanakit W, Colburn DA, Akkiraju S, Dossou S, Chong B, Glinsky G, Lal R. " Asymmetric Colloidal Janus Particle Formation Is Core-Size-Dependent." Langmuir. 2015 Aug 25;31(33):9148-54. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b01499.
  4. Mo AH, Landon PB, Emerson CD, Zhang C, Anzenberg P, Akkiraju S, Lal R. "Synthesis of nano-bowls with a Janus template" Nanoscale. 2015 Jan 14;7(2):771-5. doi: 10.1039/c4nr05153j.
  5. Fior R, Kwok J, Malfatti F, Sbaizero O, Lal R. "Biocompatible Optically Transparent MEMS for Micromechanical Stimulation and Multimodal Imaging of Living Cells." Ann Biomed Eng. 2015 Aug;43(8):1841-50. DOI: 10.1007/s10439-014-1229-8


  1. Mo, AH, Landon, PB, Meckes B, Yang M, Glinsky GV, Lal R, " On-demand Four-way Junction DNAzyme Nanoswitch Driven by Inosine-Based Partial Strand Displacement" Nanoscale. (2014) 6 (3), 1462 - 1466.
  2. Ramachandran S, Arce FT, Patel NR, Quist AP, Cohen DA, Lal R. " Structure and Permeability of Ion-channels by Integrated AFM and Waveguide TIRF Microscopy" Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 21;4:4424. doi: 10.1038/srep04424.
  3. Meckes B, Arce FT, Connelly LS, Lal R. "Insulated Conducting Cantilevered Nanotips and Two-Chamber Recording System for High Resolution IonSensing AFM."Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 25;4:4454. doi: 10.1038/srep04454.
  4. Connelly LS, Meckes B, Larkin J, Gillman AL, Wanunu M, Lal R. "Graphene Nanopore Support System for Simultaneous High -resolution AFM Imaging and Conductance Measurements." ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014, Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/am500639q
  5. Landon PB, Mo AH, Zhang C, Emerson CD, Printz AD, Gomez AF, DeLaTorre CJ, Colburn DA, Anzenberg P, Eliceiri M, O'Connell C, Lal R. " Designing Hollow Nano Gold Golf Balls" ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014 DOI: 10.1021/am502519x
  6. Kwok J, Grogan S, Meckes B, Arce F, Lal R, D'Lima D. "Atomic force microscopy reveals age-dependent changes in nanomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix of native human menisci: Implications for joint degeneration and osteoarthritis." Nanomedicine. 2014. pii: S1549-9634(14)00323-2. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2014.06.010
  7. Alfonta L,* Meckes B,* Amir L, Schlesinger O, Ramachandran S, Lal R. "Measuring Localized Redox Enzyme Electron Transfer in a Live Cell with Conducting Atomic Force Microscopy" Anal. Chem., 2014. DOI: 10.1021/ac5015645
  8. Lee J, Gillman AL , Jang H , Ramachandran S, . Kagan BL, Nussinov R, and Arce FT "Role of Fast Kinetics of Pyroglutamate Modified Amyloid-β Oligomers in Membrane Binding and Membrane Permeability" Biochemistry, 2014 DOI: 10.1021/bi500587p
  9. Gillman AL,* Jang H,* Lee J, Ramachandran S, Kagan BL, Nussinov R ,and Arce FT "Activity and Architecture of Pyroglutamate-Modified Amyloid-β (AβpE3-42) Pores" J. Phys. Chem. B, 2014. DOI: 10.1021/jp5040954.
  10. Landon PB,* Lee J,* Hwang MT, Mo AH, Zhang C, Neuberger A, Meckes B, Gutierrez JJ, Glinsky G, Lal R. " Energetically biased DNA motor containing a thermodynamically stable partial strand displacement state" Langmuir. 2014 Nov 25;30(46):14073-8. doi: 10.1021/la503711g
  11. Meckes B, Ambrosi C, Barnard H, Arce FT, Sosinsky GE, Lal R. Atomic force microscopy shows connexin26 hemichannel clustering in purified membrane fragments" Biochemistry. 2014 Dec 2;53(47):7407-14. doi: 10.1021/bi501265p.


  1. Jang H, Connelly L, Arce FT, Ramachandran S, Kagan BL, Lal R, Nussinov R. "Mechanisms for the Insertion of Toxic, Fibril-like β-Amyloid Oligomers into the Membrane." J Chem Theory Comput. 2013 Jan 8;9(1):822-833.
  2. Mitchell JG, Seuront L, Doubell MJ, Losic D, Voelcker NH, Seymour J, Lal R."The role of diatom nanostructures in biasing diffusion to improve uptake in a patchy nutrient environment." PLoS One. 2013 May 7;8(5)
  3. Jang H, Connelly L, Arce FT, Ramachandran S, Lal R, Kagan BL, Nussinov R . " Alzheimer's disease: which type of amyloid-preventing drug agents to employ?" Phys Chem Chem Phys. (2013) Jun 21;15(23):8868-77. doi: 10.1039/c3cp00017f
  4. Arce FT, Meckes B, Camp SM, Garcia JG, Dudek SM, Lal R. "Heterogenous elastic response of human lung microvascular endothelial cells to barrier modulating stimuli." Nanomedicine. (2013) Oct;9(7):875-84. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2013.03.006
  5. Ramachandran S, Cohen DA, Quist AP, Lal R. "High performance, LED powered,waveguide based total internal reflection microscopy." Sci Rep. 2013 Jul 4;3:2133. doi: 10.1038/srep0213
  6. Jang H, Teran Arce F, Ramachandran S, Kagan BL, Lal R, Nussinov R. "Familial Alzheimer's Disease Osaka Mutant (ΔE22) β-Barrels Suggest an Explanation for the Different Aβ1-40/42 Preferred Conformational States Observed by Experiment". J Phys Chem B. 2013.
  7. Landon, PB, Mo, AH, Ramos CT, Guiterrez JJ, Lal R. "Facile, Green Synthesis of Large Single Crystal Copper Micro and Nanoparticles with Ascorbic Acid and Gum Arabic." Open Journal of Applied Science 2013, 3 (5). 332-336


  1. Landon, PB; Ramachandran, S; Gillman, A, Yoon, TD; Lal ,R. DNA Zipper-based Tweezers. Langmuir, 2012, 28 (1), pp 534–540 online published, Sept 6, 2011
  2. Allen, MJ, Lacroix, J, Ramachandran, S, Capone, R, Whitlock, JL, Ghadge, GD, Arnsdorf, MF, Roos, RP. R Lal. Mutant SOD1 Forms Ion Channel: Implications for ALS Pathophysiology. Neurobiol of Disease, 2012 Mar;45(3):831-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2011.08.031.
  3. Connelly L, Jang H, Teran Arce F, Ramachandran S, Kagan BL, Nussinov R, Lal R. ”Effects of Point Substitutions on the Structure of Toxic Alzheimer’s β-Amyloid Channels: Atomic Force Microscopy and Molecular Dynamics
  4. Simulations” Biochemistry. 2012 Apr 10;51(14):3031-8. doi: 10.1021/bi300257
  5. Capone, R, Jang, H, Kotler, SA, Connelly, L, Teran Arce F, Ramachandran S, Kagan, BL, Nussinov, R, Lal, R. J. Chem. Theory Comput., (2012), 8 (3), pp 1143–1152
  6. Capone R, Jang H, Kotler SA, Kagan BL, Nussinov R, Lal R. “Probing Structural Features of Alzheimer’s Amyloid-β Pores in Bilayers Using Site-Specific AminoAcid Substitutions.” Biochemistry, 2012, 51 (3), pp 776–785
  7. Connelly L, Jang H, Teran Arce F, Capone R, Kotler SA, Ramachandran S, Kagan BL, Nussinov R, Lal R. ”Atomic Force Microscopy and MD Simulations Reveal Pore-Like Structures of All-d-Enantiomer of Alzheimer’s β-Amyloid Peptide: Relevance to the Ion Channel Mechanism of AD Pathology,” J Phys Chem B. 2012 ,11,(5):1728-35
  8. Kagan, B., Jang, H., R. Capone, F.T. Arce, S. Ramachandran, R. Lal, R. Nussinov. Antimicrobial Properties of Amyloid Peptides. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 2012, 9 (4), pp 708–717, online published Nov. 2011
  9. Kong SD, Lee J, Ramachandran S, Eliceiri BP, Shubayev VI, Lal R, Jin S. "Magnetic targeting of nanoparticles across the intact blood-brain barrier." J Control Release. 2012 Nov 28;164(1):49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.09.021. Epub 2012 Oct 10.


  1. Jang, H., F.T. Arce, M. Mustata, S. Ramachandran, R. Capone, R. Nussinov, R. Lal. "Antimicrobial Protegrin-1 (PG-1) Forms Amyloid-like Fibrils with Rapid Kinetics Suggesting a Functional Link." Biophys J, 100: 1775-83, 2011 (News and Notables)
  2. Allen, MJ,, J Gemel, EC. Beyer, R Lal. "Atomic force microscopy of Connexin40 hemichannels reveals calcium-dependent 3D molecular topography and open-closed conformations of both the extracellular and cytoplasmic faces." J Biol Chem, 2011 Jun 24;286(25):22139-46. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.240002. Epub 2011 May 4.
  3. Arce, F.T., H. Jang, S Ramachandran, P.B. Landon, R. Nussinov, R. Lal. "Structural polymorphism of truncated amyloid β peptide: Implications for membrane insertion and pore formation." Soft Matter, in press, 2011
  4. Ramachandran S, Teran Arce F, Lal R. “Potential role of atomic force microscopy in systems biology.” Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2011 Nov-Dec;3(6):702-16. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.154
  5. Ayala R, C. Zhang, D. Yang, A. Aereas, S. Shroff, F.T. Arce, Y.S. Hwang, R. Lal, G. Arya, S. Varghese. "Engineering cell-material interface for controlling stem cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation." Biomaterials, in press, 2011


  1. Kong, D.K., W. Zhang, J.H. Lee, K. Brammer, R. Lal, M. Karin, S. Jin. Magnetically Vectored Nanocapsules for Tumor Penetration and Remotely Switchable Drug Release. Nano Letter 10, 5088–5092, 2010
  2. R. Lal, S. Ramachandran, MFA Arnsdorf.. Multi-dimensional atomic force microscopy for nanopharmacology: a versatile tool for defining targets, designing therapeutics and monitoring their efficacy. AAPS Journal, 12: 716-28, 2010
  3. Jang, H., F.T.. Arce, S. Ramachandran, R. Capone, R. Lal, R. Nussinov. β-Barrel Topology of Alzheimer’s β-Amyloid Ion Channels. J Mol Biol., 404: 917-34 2010
  4. Jang, H, F.T. Arce, S. Ramachandran, R. Capone, R. Lal, R. Nussinov. Structural Convergence Among Diverse, Toxic beta-Sheet Ion Channels. Journal of Physical chem. B. 114: 9445-9451, 2010
  5. Capone R, M. Mustata, H. Jang, F.T. Arce, R. Nussinov, Lal R. Antimicrobial protegrin-1 forms ion channels: molecular dynamic simulation, atomic force microscopy, and electrical conductance studies. Biophys J. 98:2644-52, 2010
  6. Lal, R, M.F. Arnsdorf. Multidimensional atomic force microscopy for drug discovery: A versatile tool for defining targets, designing therapeutics and monitoring their efficacy. Life Sciences, 86:545-62, 2010
  7. Jang H, F.T. Arce, S. Ramachandran, R. Capone, R. Azimova, B.L. Kagan, R. Nussinov, R.Lal. Truncated beta-amyloid peptide channels provide an alternative mechanism for Alzheimer’s Disease and Down syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 107:6538-43, 2010 (Featured article with wide media attention)
  8. Ramachandran, S., R. Lal. Scope of atomic force microscopy in the advancement of nanomedicine. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 48: 1020-36, 2010
  9. Quist, A.P., R. Lal. Characterization of nanoscale biological systems: Multimodal Atomic Force microscopy for Nanoimaging, nanomechanics and biomolecular interactions. Nanotechnology for Biology and Medicine In press, 2010


  1. Jang H, F.T. Arce, R. Capone, S. Ramachandran, R. Lal, R. Nussinov. Misfolded amyloid ion channels present mobile beta-sheet subunits in contrast to conventional ion channels. Biophys J.;97:3029-37, 2009
  2. Arce, FT, R. Carlson, J. Monds, R. Veeh, F.H. Zu, P.S. Stewart, R. Lal, G.D. Ehrlich, R. Avci. Nanoscale structural and mechanical properties of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms. J Bacterology 191: 2512-2520, 2009
  3. Shen, H.M., M.G. Poirier, M. Allen, J. North, R.Lal, J Widom, U Strob. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) efficiently targets DNA in nucleiosomes, but only during transcription. J Exp Med 206: 1057-1071, 2009
  4. Birukova, A.A., F.T. Arce, N. Moldobaeva, S. Dudek, J.G.N. Garcia, R. Lal, K.G. Birukov, Endothelial permeability is controlled by spatially defined cytoskeletal mechanics: AFM force mapping of pulmonary endothelial monolayer. J Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 5, 30-41, 2009
  5. Mustata. M., R. Capone, H. Jang H, F.T. Arce, S. Ramachandran, R. Lal, R. Nussinov. The K3 fragment of amyloidogenic β2-microglobulin forms ion channel: Implication for Dialysis Related Amyloidosis. JACS, 131:14938-45., 2009.
  6. Jang, H., B. Ma, R. Lal, R. Nussinov. Models of Toxic -sheet Channels of Protegrin-1 (PG-1) Suggest a Common Subunit Organization Motif Shared with Toxic Alzheimer -Amyloid Ion Channels. Biophys J, 95:4631-4642, 2008
  7. Jang, H., J. Zheng, R. Lal, R. Nussinov. New structures help the modeling of toxic Amyloidß ion channels. TIBS, 33: 91-100, 2008
  8. Landon, P., J.J. Gutierrez, S,A. Alvarado, S. Peela, S. Ramachandran, F. T. Arce, R Lal. Hollow Disc and Sphere Shaped Particles from Red Blood Cell Templates. Research Lett in Phys Chem 2008. doi:10.1155/2008/726285
  9. Arce, F.T., J. Whitlock, A.A. Birukova, K.G. Birukov, M.F. Arnsdorf, R. Lal, J.G.N. Garcia, S.M. Dudek. Regulation of the Micromechanical Properties of Pulmonary Endothelium by S1P and Thrombin: Role of Cortactin. Biophys J, 95:886-894, 2008.
  10. Quist, A., A. Chand, S. Srinivasan, C. Daraio, S. Jin, R. Lal. Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging and Electrical Recording of Lipid Bilayers Supported over Microfabricated Silicon Chip Nanopores: Lab-on-a-Chip System for Lipid Membranes and Ion Channels Langmuir, 23:1375-80, 2007.
  11. Srinivasan, S., L-H Xie, S.A. John, S. Subramaniam, R. Lal. Hemichannels initiate oxidative stress and smoking induced apoptosis. Pending final revision, PLOS One, 2(8): e712, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000712 , 2007
  12. Lal, R., H. Lin, A.P. Quist. Amyloid beta ion channel: 3D structure and relevance to amyloid channel paradigm. Pending Final decision, BBA – Biomembranes, 1768:1966-75, 2007
  13. Losic, D., K. Short, J. G. Mitchell, R. Lal, N. H. Voelcker. AFM nanoindentations of diatom biosilica surfaces. Langmuir, 23: 5014-5021, 2007
  14. Losic, D., J.G. Mitchell, R. Lal, N.H. Voelcker. Rapid fabrication of micro- and nanoscale patterns by replica moulding from diatom biosilica. Adv Funct Mat. 17: 2439-2446; 2007
  15. Liu, F., F.T. Arce, S. Ramachandran, R. Lal. Nanomechanics of hemichannel conformations: Connexin flexibility underlying channel opening and closing. J Biol Chem, 281: 23207–23217, 2006.
  16. Ramachandran, S., S. Kumar, A. P. Quist, R. Lal. Cisplatin nanoliposomes for cancer therapy: AFM and Fluorescence imaging of cisplatin encapsulation, stability, cellular uptake and toxicity. Langmuir, 22: 8156-62, 2006
  17. Quist, A.P., S. Ramachandran, A. Chand, D. Cohen, R. Lal. Piezoresistive Cantilever Based Nanoflow & Viscosity Sensor for Microchannels. Lab on Chip, 6:1450-4, 2006.
  18. Chen, I-Chen, L-H Chen, X-R Ye, C. Daraio, S. Jin, C. Orme, A.P. Quist, R. Lal. Extremely Sharp Carbon Nanocone Probes for High-Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy. Appl Phys Lett, 88(15): AR 153102, 2006
  19. Chen, I-Chen, Li-Han Chen, C. Orme, A. Quist, R. Lal, S. Jin. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio carbon nanocone probes by electron beam induced deposition patterning. Nanotechnology 17: 4322–4326, 2006.
  20. Fagan, T., B. Kagan, W. Hwang, C. Glabe, R. Lal, D. Teplow, B. Albensi, Y. Sokolov. Alzheimer Research Forum Live Discussion: Now you see them, now you don’t: The amyloid channel hypothesis. J Alzheimers Dis 9: 219-24, 2006.
  21. Piorek, B., A. Mechler, P. Freudenthal, R. Lal, C. Meinhart, S. Banerjee. Nanoscale resolution micromechanical velocimetry by atomic force microscopy. Appl Phys Lett, 89(15): AR 153123, 2006.
  22. Ghiso J, A. Rostagno, Y. Tomidokoro, T. Lashley, M. Bojsen-Moller, H. Braendgaard, G. Plant, J. Holton, R. Lal, T. Revesz, B. Frangione. Genetic alterations of the BRI2 gene: Familial British and Danish dementias. Brain Path 16: 71-79, 2006.
  23. Rostagno A, R. Lal, J. Ghiso. Protein misfolding, aggregation and fibril formation: Common features of cerebral and non-cerebral amyloidosis. In Neurobiology of Alzheimers Disease. D. Dawbarn (ed), 2006.
  24. Quist, A. Duodevski, I., Lin, R. Azimova, D. Ng, B. Frangione, B. Kagan, J. Ghiso, R. Lal. Amyloids form membrane channels: a common structural link for protein-misfolding disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci (PNAS), 102: 10427–10432, 2005. (Featured Article with broad media release).
  25. Thimm, J., A. Mechler, H. Lin, S.K. Rhee, R. Lal. Calcium dependent open-closed conformations and interfacial energy maps of reconstituted individual hemichannels. J Biol Chem, 280: 10646–10654, 2005.
  26. Almqvist N, Bhatia R, N. Desai, R. Lal. Elasticity and adhesion force mapping reveals real-time clustering of growth factor receptors and associated changes in local cellular rheological properties. Biophys J 86:1753-62, 2004. (Journal Cover)
  27. Ionescu-Zanetti, C., A. Mechler, S. Carter, R.Lal. Semiconductive polymer blends: correlating structure with transport properties at the nanoscale. Advanced Materials, 16: 385-389, 2004. (Journal Cover).
  28. Mechler, A. B. Piorek, R. Lal, S. Banerjee. Nanoscale velocity – drag force relationship in thin liquid layers measured by atomic force microscopy. Appl Phys Lett, 85: 3881-3883, 2004
  29. Seo J, C. Ionescu-Zanetti, J. Diamond R. Lal, L.P. Lee. Integrated multiple patch-clamp array chip via lateral cell trapping junctions. Appl Phys Lett 84:1973-75, 2004
  30. Mechler, A., J. Kokavecz, P. Heszler, R. Lal. Surface energy map at atomic monolayer steps: atomic force microscopy & numerical simulation study. Appl Phys Lett, 82: 3739-42, 2003
  31. Ionescu, C., K. Cheung, R. Lal, L.P. Lee. Simultaneous imaging of ionic conductivity and morphology of a microfluidic system. J Appl Phys, 92:10134-36, 2003
  32. Makrides, T.E. Shen, R. Bhatia, B.L. Smoth, J. Thimm, R. Lal, S.C. Feinstein. Microtubule dependent oligomerization of Tau: implications for physiological Tau function and Tauopathies. J Biol Chem, 278: 33298-304, 2003. (Journal Cover)
  33. Parbhu, A., H. Lin, J. Thimm, R. Lal. Real-time dynamics of amyloid beta protein aggregation: role of solvents, antagonists, and agonists. Peptide, 23:1265-70, 2002.
  34. Lal, R., H. Lin. Imaging molecular structure and physiological functions of gap junctions and hemijunctions by Multimodal atomic force microscopy. J Microscopy Res and Techniques, 52: 273-288, 2001.
  35. Lin, H., R. Bhatia, R. Lal. Amyloid ß-protein forms ion channels: implications for Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology. FASEB J, 15:2433-2444, 2001.
  36. Almqvist, N., Y. del Amo, B. L. Smith, N. H. Thomson, Å. Bartholdson, M. Brzenski, R. Lal, P. K. Hansma. Micromechanical and structural properties of a pennate diatom investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. J Microscopy 202:518-532, 2001
  37. Quist, A.P., S.K. Rhee, H. Lin, R. Lal. Physiological role of gap junction hemichannels: extracellular calcium-dependent isosmotic volume regulation. J Cell Biol, 148: 1063-1074, 2000.
  38. Bhatia, R.K., H. Lin, R. Lal. Fresh and Globular amyloid beta protein (1-42) induces rapid cellular degeneration: evidence for AβP-channel mediated cellular toxicity. FASEB J 14:1233-1243, 2000.
  39. Zhu, Y.J., H. Lin, R. Lal. Fresh and non-fibrillar amyloid beta protein (1-40) induces rapid cellular degeneration: evidence for AßP-channel mediated cellular toxicity. FASEB J 14:1244-1254, 2000.
  40. Kim, H., R.M. Garavito, R. Lal. Atomic force microscopy of three-dimensional crystal of membrane protein, OmpC porin. Colloids & Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 19:347-355, 2000.
  41. Lin, H., R. Lal, D.O. Clegg. Imaging and mapping heparin-binding sites on single fibronectin molecules with atomic force microscopy. Biochemistry 39: 3192-96, 2000.


  1. Lin, H., J. Zhu, R. Lal. Amyloid beta protein (1-40) forms calcium permeable, zinc-sensitive pores in reconstituted lipid vesicles. Biochemistry, 38: 11189-11196, 1999.
  2. Lin, H., D.O. Clegg, R. Lal. Imaging real-time proteolysis of single collagen molecules with an atomic force microscope. Biochemistry, 38: 9956-9963, 1999.
  3. Parbhu, A., W. Bryson, R. Lal. Disulfide bonds in the outer cell layer of keratin fibers confer mechanical rigidity: correlative nanoindentation and elasticity measurement with an atomic force microscope. Biochemistry, 38:11755-61, 1999
  4. Kim, H., H. Lin, R. Lal. Atomic force microscopy of reconstituted ion channels. in Ion channel localization Methods and Protocols, Humana Press, 2001.
  5. Lal, R. Scanning probe techniques. The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, T.E. Creighton, Ed., John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1999.
  6. Rhee, S.K., A.P. Quist, R. Lal. Amyloid beta protein (1-42) forms calcium permeable, Zn2+-sensitive channel. J Biol Chem 273: 13379-13382, 1998.
  7. John, S.A., D. Saner, J. Pitts, M. Finbow, R. Lal. Atomic force microscopy of arthropod gap junctions. J Struct Biol120: 22-31, 1997.
  8. Lal, R., R. Proksch. Multimodal imaging with atomic force microscopy: combined atomic force, light fluorescence, & laser confocal microscopy and electrophysiological recordings of biological membranes. Int J Imaging Syst Technol8: 293-300, 1997.
  9. Lal, R. Imaging molecular structure of channels and receptors with an atomic force microscope. Scanning Microscopy 10: 81-96, 1996.
  10. Proksch, R.A., R. Lal, P.K. Hansma, D. Morse, G. Stucky. Imaging the internal and external pore structures of membrane in fluid: tapping mode scanning ion conductance microscopy. Biophys J, 71: 2155-57, 1996.
  11. Lal, R., S.A. John, D. Laird, M.F. Arnsdorf. Heart gap junction preparations reveal hemiplaques by atomic force microscopy. Am J Physiol 268: C968-C977, 1995.
  12. Shroff, S., D. Saner, R. Lal. Dynamic micro-mechanical properties of contractile cells measured by atomic force microscopy. Am J Physiol 269: C286-C292, 1995.
  13. Lal, R., B. Drake, D. Blumberg, D. Saner, P.K. Hansma, S. Feinstein. Imaging neurite outgrowth and cytoskeletal reorganization with an atomic force microscope: studies on PC12 and NIH3T3 cells in culture. Am J Physiol 269: C275-C285, 1995.
  14. Barbee, K.A., T. Mundel, R. Lal, P.F. Davies. Subcellular-distribution of shear stress at the surface of flow-aligned and nonaligned endothelial monolayers. Am J Physiol 268: H1765-H1772, 1995.
  15. Davies, P.F., K.A. Barbee, R. Lal. Hemodynamics and atherogenesis: endothelial surface dynamics in flow signal transduction. Annals NY Acad Sci 748:86-103, 1995.
  16. Hillner, P.E., D.A. Walters, R. Lal, H.G.Hansma, P.K. Hansma. Combined atomic force and confocal laser scanning microscope. J Micro Soc Am 1: 123-126, 1995.
  17. Blair, J.M., L.B. Sorensen, M.F. Arnsdorf, R. Lal. The application of atomic force microscopy in the detection of microcrystals in synovial fluid of patients with recurrent synovitis. Sem Arthritis & Rheumatism 24: 359-369, 1995.
  18. Proksch, R., R. Lal and P.K. Hansma. Recent Developments in Scanning Ionic Conductance Microscopy. Proc Microscopy and Microanalysis 202, 1995.
  19. Lal, R., S.A. John. Biological applications of atomic force microscopy. Am J Physiol: Cell Physiol 266: C1-C21, 1994. (Journal Cover)
  20. Hansma, P.K., B. Drake, D. Grigg, C.B. Prater, F. Yashar, G. Gurley, V. Elings, S. Feinstein, R. Lal. A new, optical-lever based atomic force microscope. J Appl Phys 76: 796-799, 1994.
  21. Barbee, K.A., P.F. Davies, R. Lal. Shear stress-induced reorganization of the surface-topography of living endothelial cells by atomic force microscopy. Cir Res 74:163-71, 1994.
  22. Kordylewski, L., D. Saner, R. Lal. Atomic force microscopy of freeze-fracture replicas of rat atrial tissue. J Microscopy 173: 173-181, 1994. (Journal Cover).
  23. Lal, R., L. Yu. Molecular structure of cloned nicotinic AChR receptors expressed in xenopus oocyte as revealed by atomic force microscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci 90: 7280-7284, 1993.
  24. Lal, R., H. Kim, R.M. Garavito, M.F. Arnsdorf. Molecular resolution imaging of reconstituted biological channels using atomic force microscopy. Am J Physiol 265: C851-C856, 1993
  25. Lal, R., D.W. Laird, J.‑P. Revel. Antibody perturbation Analysis of gap junction permeability. Pflugers Arch 422: 449-457, 1993.
  26. Polacek, D., R. Lal, M.V. Volin, P.F. Davies. Gap junctional communication between vascular cells: induction of connexin43 mRNA in macrophage foam cells of human atherosclerotic lesions. Am J Pathology 142: 593-606, 1993.
  27. Hoh, J., R. Lal, S.A. John, J.-P. Revel, M.F. Arnsdorf. Atomic force microscopy of liver gap junction. In Progress in Cell Research 3: 41-45, 1993.
  28. Lal, R., M.F. Arnsdorf. Voltage dependent gating and single channel conductance of adult atrial gap junctions. Cir Res71: 737-743, 1992.
  29. Arnsdorf, M.F., R. Lal. Recent Progress with atomic force microscopy in biology: molecular resolution imaging of cell membranes, constituent biomolecules, and micro-crystals. SPIE Proc: Imaging Tech and Appl 1778: 112-116, 1992.
  30. Hoh, J., R. Lal, SA John, J.-P. Revel, MF Arnsdorf. Atomic force microscopy and dissection of gap junctions. Science,253:1405-08, 1991 (Corresponding Author)
  31. Lal, R., M.J. Friedlander. The effect of passive eye position on signal transmission through the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. J Neurophysiol 63: 502‑22, 1990
  32. Lal, R., M.J. Friedlander. The effect of passive eye movement on signal transmission through the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. J Neurophysiol 63: 523‑538, 1990.
  33. Yancey, S.B. (I), S.A. John (II), R. Lal (III), B. J. Austin, J.‑P. Revel. The 43 kD polypeptide of heart gap junctions I: immunolocalization, II: topology and III: functional domains. J Cell Biol 108:2241‑54, 1989. (One of the Primary Authors).
  34. Lal, R., M.J. Friedlander. Gating of retinal transmission by afferent eye position and movement signals. Science 243: 93‑96, 1989